- Nuclear and sarcolemmal K ATP channels also contribute to the endurance of and recovery from metabolic stress.
- Costameres are sub-sarcolemmal protein assemblies circumferentially aligned in register with the Z-disk of peripheral myofibrils.
- Gamma-sarcoglycan is one of several sarcolemmal transmembrane glycoproteins that interact with dystrophin, probably to provide a link between the membrane associated cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix.
- Ankyrin-B forms a membrane complex with ATP-sensitive potassium channels, which is necessary for normal channel trafficking and targeting the channel to sarcolemmal membranes; this interaction is also important in the response of cardiomyocytes to cardiac ischemia and metabolic regulation.
- Such bypassing of the second-messenger pathways is observed in mammalian cardiac myocytes and associated sarcolemmal vesicles in which Ca 2 + channels are able to survive and function in the absence of cAMP, ATP or protein kinase C when in the presence of the activated ?-subunit of the G protein.