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quarkonium stateの例文

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  • Where r is the effective radius of the quarkonium state, a and b are parameters.
  • Heavy quarkonium states, provide an essential tool to study the early and hot stage of heavy-ion collisions.
  • In the presence of a deconfined medium ( i . e . QGP ) with high enough energy density, quarkonium states are dissociated because of colour screening.
  • The true analogs of positronium in the theory of strong interactions are the quarkonium states : they are mesons made of a heavy quark and antiquark ( namely, charmonium and bottomonium ).
  • As the temperature increases so does the colour screening resulting in greater suppression of the quarkonium states as it is more difficult for charm  anticharm or bottom  antibottom to form new bound states.
  • In this technique, one uses the fact that the motion of the quarks that comprise the quarkonium state is non-relativistic to assume that they move in a static potential, much like non-relativistic models of the hydrogen atom.
  • At very high temperatures no quarkonium states are expected to survive; they melt in the QGP . Quarkonium sequential suppression is therefore considered as a QGP thermometer, as states with different masses have different sizes and are expected to be screened and dissociated at different temperatures.
  • The second part, br, is known as the " confinement " part of the potential, and parameterizes the poorly understood non-perturbative effects of QCD . Generally, when using this approach, a convenient form for the wave function of the quarks is taken, and then a and b are determined by fitting the results of the calculations to the masses of well-measured quarkonium states.
  • The true analogs of positronium in the theory of strong interactions, however, are not exotic atoms but certain mesons, the " quarkonium states ", which are made of a heavy quark such as the charm or bottom quark and its antiquark . ( Top quarks are so heavy that they decay through the weak force before they can form bound states . ) Exploration of these states through non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics ( NRQCD ) and lattice QCD are increasingly important tests of quantum chromodynamics.